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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2022
Volume 1 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 29-80

Online since Monday, February 20, 2023

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Pandemic and the fear syndrome: What next? p. 29
K Rajasekharan Nayar, Shaffi Fazaludeen Koya
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Prioritizing operational research in hospital settings: Need of the hour p. 31
Sonu Goel
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Childhood obesity: Causes, comorbidities, prevention, and management p. 34
Ulfat Amin Bhat
In both industrialized and developing nations, childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, causing a variety of medical disorders that raise the risk of morbidity and hasten mortality. Obesity is a serious public health issue and is a complex disorder involving biological, developmental, environmental, behavioral, and hereditary components. Numerous research investigations have been carried out to determine what linkages and risk factors enhance the likelihood that a kid may present with obesity as a result of the rise in the incidence of obesity among youngsters. The integration of diet, workouts, biological changes, and psychological variables is important in the control and prevention of childhood obesity; therefore, all researchers concur that prevention is the key strategy for controlling the current problem. However, a comprehensive view of all the health conditions linked to obesity remains a mystery. This strategy could backfire because of the psychological problems with bodily habitus that may come along with puberty. Bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and night-eating syndrome are all conditions that can develop in teens as a result of unhealthful eating behaviors. Others who overshoot their objective of “being healthy” and limit their food may develop anorexia nervosa.
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Primary response to COVID-19 situation by Himachal Pradesh, India, during pandemic year 2019–20: “Exceptional and emphatic”—A commentary p. 42
Gopal A Sharma, Vijay K Barwal, Anmol Gupta
BACKGROUND: India announced its first incidence of corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the state of Kerala on January 30, 2020. The severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARs-CoV-2) pandemic was also unavoidably pounding on the doors of the state of Himachal Pradesh (HP), with enormous regional discrepancies necessitating remarkable insight. SETTINGS: On February 5, 2020, HP’s health authority took its first reaction step and followed it with a swift, adequate, and innovative response subsequently. Assuming R0 of 2.28 at the early stages of an epidemic, the outbreak threshold (T0 = 1/Log R0) is estimated to be mere 2.7 infections. However, with the emergence of only two positive cases, the state acted conscientiously vigilant to announce a lockdown at an opportune moment. METHODS: Department of Information and Technology developed a “CORONA Mukht (free) App” for keeping a digital record of all home-quarantined persons on the administration vigil list. During the active house-to-house case-finding campaign, an exercise involving 16,000 healthcare workforces, around 10,000 individuals with influenza-like illness (ILI) were screened. The ambulances were modified innovatively as “mobile sample collection kiosks” for sample collections throughout. The state added additional categories in the sampling protocol to keep a vigil for any community transmission. The protocol included samples from Flu clinics, ILI patients from the community, and occupants with ILI from migrant relief camps. DISCUSSION: On April 20, 2020, there were 23 incident cases in the state and declined to 10 on April 27, 2020. On May 3, 2020, out of 40 positive cases reported, there was only one active case under treatment. Subsequently, with effective containment measures, the state succeeded in keeping the test positivity rate below 2% from May to August 2020. Effectively during the specified period, cumulative deaths reported were 33 only in the state, with a case fatality rate of 0.56% at the end of August 2020, lower than the national average of 2.1%. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that HP’s initial response to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was exceptional and emphatic.
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Impact of COVID-19 on essential health services in Bangladesh: A rapid assessment p. 49
Sharmin Parveen, Nasreen Nahar, Md Shahriar Mahbub, Kazi Abu Mohammad Morshed, Abu Said Md Juel Miah
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, one of the greatest public health challenges, has unleashed damage to human health as well as socioeconomic disruptions on an unprecedented scale. The study looked into the experiences of the people seeking essential healthcare services during COVID-19 and the short-term and long-term consequences of the denial of getting these services during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This rapid assessment collected data from 2,483 randomly selected households having an average family size of 4.89 people residing in 16 districts of 8 divisions during the reference period of April 2020 to August 2020. RESULTS: A decline of around 10% in the recommended number of antenatal check-ups (4 or more) was observed. Fear of infection, economic fallout, and absence/redeployment of medical staff to pandemic management are the primary reasons many pregnant women avoided seeking necessary healthcare. Only 1 in 5 (21%) of surveyed households received the family planning services that they required. Around a quarter of all newborn children missed the BCG vaccination. More than half (56.3%) of the families with members having chronic diseases opted for self-exclusion from healthcare services. The healthcare cost increased while the average income decreased by a third of the pre-pandemic level. The inability to express problems adequately to a physician was the commonest difficulty faced by the respondents while using telemedicine—a useful tool during a health crisis. CONCLUSION: Measures need to be taken based on the assessment to mitigate any potential long-term impact on people surviving the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Psychological impact of quarantine and isolation on patients, carers, and frontline healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic p. 59
Ovais Wadoo, Naveed Nazir Shah, Mudasir M Firdosi, Arshad Hussain, Mehvish Mushtaq, Aaliya Mohi-uddin Azad, Sami Ouanes, Zaid Khan, Shahid Majid, Waseem-ud Din, Sabeena Qadri, Shuja Reagu
Background and Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a significant impact on the mental well-being of the general population and the impact is reported to be more in people in isolation/quarantine facilities and frontline healthcare workers managing patients in such facilities. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health is yet to be fully understood by family carers who attend to the patient for basic nursing care in hospital settings. We set out to bridge this gap by exploring the psychological impact on patients, carers, and frontline healthcare workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a COVID-19 tertiary care treatment facility. Consecutive adult patients admitted for quarantine and isolation purposes, their immediate carers, and frontline workers were included in the study. Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale was used to study the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: In the patient group, the prevalence of depression was 60.2% and the prevalence of anxiety was 53%. In the carer group, the prevalence of depression was 46.2% and the prevalence of anxiety was 49.2%. In the healthcare worker group, the prevalence of depression was 16.7% and the prevalence of anxiety was 33.3%. Interpretation and Conclusions: COVID-19 has led to an increasing reliance on home and hospital carers. Our study underlines an important finding that the psychological impact is significant not only on the patients who contract the infection but also on their carers.
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Familial contribution to intergenerational psychosocial transmission of use of tobacco products: A hospital based case–control study p. 66
Shahina Yasmin, Archana KrishnaMurthy, Shilpashree Komarla Balaji, Mumin Rashid
INTRODUCTION: Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Parental use of tobacco increases the likelihood that children will also engage in uptake of similar habit and hence this study was conducted with the aim to assess the relationship between parental bonding and tobacco-specific familial practices as predictors of tobacco usage in adults. AIM: To assess the familial contribution to intergenerational psychosocial transmission of tobacco use among outpatients visiting The Oxford Dental College, Bengaluru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case–control study was conducted among 430 patients coming to the out-patient section in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in a Dental College in Bengaluru, which included 215 tobacco users and 215 non-tobacco users. Study participants aged between 15 and 25 years and were age and gender matched in the ratio of 1:1. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information regarding their self-tobacco use, form of use, parental and grandparental tobacco use. Study participants‗ perception of the mother‗s and father‗s parenting behavior was assessed using modified version of the parental bonding instrument and assessment of the study participants nicotine dependency was done using the Parental Bonding Instrument(PBI). RESULTS: Among the 215 study participants in each group, the distributions of male and female participants were 212 (98.6%) and three (1.4%), respectively, with a mean age of 22.9 ± 3.05 years and the participants had high dependency with mean FTND score of 5.23 ± 2.77 and 5.57 ± 4.0 for the smoking and smokeless form, respectively. Results of the univariate logistic regression showed that study participants with paternal tobacco habit were 5.28 times more likely to adopt the tobacco habit compared to the study participants without paternal tobacco use (OR = 5.28, 95% CI: 2.70–10.30) and study participants with paternal grandfather tobacco use were 1.57 times (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.47–2.74) more likely to develop the tobacco habit than the study participants without paternal grandfather tobacco use and both the association was found to be statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the study participants who had higher maternal strictness were 0.077 less likely [OR= −0.077, 95% CI: −0.146–(−0.008)] to develop the tobacco habit compared to the study participants with lower maternal strictness which was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.030*) and participants with higher paternal warmth were 0.097 times less likely to adopt the tobacco habit compared to study participants with lower paternal warmth [OR= −0.097, 95% CI: −0.097 [−0.190–(−0.005)] which was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.040*). CONCLUSION: For an effective tobacco control program among tobacco users, counseling of participants‗ father and mother should be done simultaneously. Further, anti-tobacco activities should emphasize and make parents realize the importance the family plays in the development of tobacco behavior through implicit influences such as the level of parental control of their children‗s behavior and make the family members understand the way in which they deal with tobacco at home will have an impact on their child tobacco behavior.
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Parasellar massive meningioma cured with therapeutic purgation (virechana) and nasal instillation (nasya): A case report p. 71
Divya Kajaria, Kundan Sushilkumar Wasnik
Meningiomas are a benign type of intracranial tumor. Age and the site of the tumor are the two deciding factors for the prognosis. The majority of meningiomas are non-malignant, but these tumors can grow slowly and may have a progressive complicated stage, which if left untreated can be life-threatening. Presently, surgical excision is the commonest use treatment modality; radiotherapy is also used in some cases where complete surgical excision is not possible. A craniotomy is required for proper excision of the tumor and it has its own disadvantages, if not done properly can be severely disabling and may even endanger life. The cost of the surgery is also one of the limiting factors in poor and developing countries. Therefore, surgical options mostly opt for large meningiomas. This article gives detail of a case of meningioma in the left parasellar region extending medially and superiorly, displacing the pituitary stalk and indenting left orbital nerve;treated successfully with Ayurvedic treatment modalities including Virechana (~therapeutic purgation) and Nasya (~nasal instillation) therapies with a total duration of treatment was one month. CT Brain contrast imaging was the diagnostic and assessment tool used to ascertain the outcome of the treatment.
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Impact of Russia: Ukraine war on healthcare p. 78
Sai Kiran Kuchana, Rohith Kode, L V Simhachalam Kutikuppala, Sri Harsha Boppanna
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