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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 25-28

Causes and pattern of neonatal mortality in tertiary care neonatal unit of medical college hospital at Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir


Department of Paediatrics, Government Medical College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Irfan Dar
Department of Paediatrics, Government Medical College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JIMPH.JIMPH_4_21

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BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rate is the best indicator of effectiveness of maternal and child health services in general. Seventy percent of total infant deaths fall in neonatal period that is the neonatal mortality rate. The neonatal mortality is not uniform across the country. Substantial variations are observed in survival rates between the states and between districts within states. Focusing on local changes using local data can lead to improved outcomes. Health facility-based interventions can reduce neonatal mortality by 23%–50% in different settings. OBJECTIVES: This research article provides an overview of the causes of neonatal mortality and the relative public health importance of different causes that will help in reorganization and strengthening of neonatal services in our setup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a record-based observational study of all the neonatal deaths in the neonatal unit over a period of 2 months from November 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019. Details of each neonatal death were analyzed. RESULTS: Most common cause of death was prematurity (56.44%) followed by neonatal sepsis (37.62%), birth anoxia (30%), and respiratory distress syndrome (26.73%). Seventy percent (71.29%) of deaths were inborn, whereas 24.75% and 3.96% were outborn and home-delivered, respectively. Sixty-seven percent (67.32%) were less than 2.5 kg among which 36.63% were less than 1.5 kg. Median weight was 2 kg. Fifty-seven (57%) of deaths occurred within 48 h after birth and median age at admission was 2 h and median hospital stay was 1.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in female literacy rate, nutritional status of mother, providing good and essential antenatal care will reduce endogenous factors (prematurity and birth injuries) of neonatal mortality. Improving level 2 special newborn care and level 3 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) beds, upgrading and operationalizing the newborn stabilization unit beds along with quality improvement and a functional back-referral system will substantially bring down neonatal mortality


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