• Users Online: 32
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10-13

Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir, J&K


Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Institute of Dental Sciences, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Date of Submission27-May-2021
Date of Decision03-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance15-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication31-May-2022

Correspondence Address:
Malvika Singh
Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Institute of Dental Sciences, University of Jammu, Village Sehora, Kunjwani, Bishnah Road, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JIMPH.JIMPH_2_21

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

CONTEXT: India is one of the top three tobacco burden countries in the world. Tobacco intake causes loss of health, environment and increases financial burden of an individual. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake among individuals of more than 15 years of age in union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: District wise data from National Health Survey-5, Ministry of Health and Family welfare 2019–2020 was analyzed and measuredSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Mean, median and mode. RESULTS: Out of all the 20 districts in J&K, prevalence of tobacco smoking was highest in Kupwara district (56.6%) and lowest in Jammu district (26.6%). CONCLUSIONS: People should be made more aware about the ill effects of tobacco usage. Although, the Government of India enacted various legislations to control tobacco use, its reduction lies in our hands and same should be discussed with general masses my making them aware about the menace of tobacco on mental, environmental and health of individual.

Keywords: Distribution, Ill effects, Jammu and Kashmir, tobacco, tobacco control


How to cite this article:
Singh M. Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir, J&K. J Integr Med Public Health 2022;1:10-3

How to cite this URL:
Singh M. Prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir, J&K. J Integr Med Public Health [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 3];1:10-3. Available from: http://www.jimph.org/text.asp?2022/1/1/10/346305




  Key Messages: Top


Tobacco, taken in any form causes damage to health and bears an financial brunt not only for the individual but also for his family. Although the Government is trying its level best to stop this menace, its decline lies in the hands of us as responsible citizens so that we all ca live in healthy and safe environment.


  Introduction Top


India is the second largest producer of tobacco in the world with an estimated annual production of 800 million kilograms. It is also among the top three highest burden countries in terms of the number of users.[1] In 2016, the global adult tobacco survey (GATS) estimated the prevalence of smokeless and smoked tobacco use in India among those aged C 15 years to be 21.4% and 10.7%, respectively.[2] Apart from causing economic and environmental loss, use of tobacco affects health greatly.


  Subjects and Methods Top


Data from National Health Survey-5, Ministry of Health and Family welfare 2019–2020[3] was studied, analysed and measured for the prevalence and distribution of tobacco intake in individuals aged 15 years and above in various districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India using stastical parameters such as mean and mode.


  Results Top


It was found that highest number of individuals who took tobacco in any form belonged to Kupwara district (56.6%) followed by Anantnag district (49.9%) and Badgam district (48.8%) whereas least percentage of tobacco was consumed in Jammu district (26.5%) followed by Kathua district (35.4%) and Srinagar district (38.4%) respectively [Table 1] and [Figure 1]. Out of a total population, when analyzing males and their tobacco consumption district wise, it was found that highest number of the same belonged from Kupwara district (49.8%) followed by Anantnag district (47.0%) and Shopian district (47.0%) respectively whereas least percentage of males consuming tobacco belonged to Jammu district (25.7%) followed by Kathua district (33.3%) and Baramulla district (34.7%) respectively [Table 1] and [Figure 2]. Similarly, while analyzing females and their tobacco consumption district wise, it was found that highest number of the same belonged from Bandipora district (9.1%) followed by Kupwara district (6.8%) and Baramulla district (6.5%) respectively whereas least percentage of females consuming tobacco belonged to Jammu district (0.8%) followed by Srinagar district (1.9%) and Poonch district (2.3%) respectively [Table 1] and [Figure 3].
Table 1: Distribution of tobacco intake n various districts of Jammu and Kashmir in year 2019–2020

Click here to view
Figure 1: Distribution of tobacco intake among all population in various districts of J&K

Click here to view
Figure 2: Distribution of tobacco intake among males in various districts of J&K

Click here to view
Figure 3: Distribution of tobacco intake among females in various districts of J&K

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Tobacco intake not only takes a toll on health of an individual but also causes economic and environmental loss. Unsurprisingly, the trends of tobacco use were markedly different across the different districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Kupwara district recorded the highest prevalence of any form of tobacco use in both genders and Jammu district recorded the least prevalence which can be attributed to education, income, caste and other socio-economic variables which are recognized as strong predictors of tobacco use may explain this inter district variation.[4] Belonging to a particular region has been observed as an independent predictor of tobacco use implying that distal factors such as tradition, politico-legal climate and geography, operating at a state level, also influence tobacco-use behavior.[5] Individuals who take tobacco in any form are encouraged to undergo smoking cessation programme. Not only this, Government of India has introduced tobacco cessation policies such as Cigarettes and Other tobacco products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act in 2003, formation of Tobacco Cessation Clinics and research studies were also supported to develop community-based tobacco cessation models such as National Tobacco Control Program.


  Conclusion Top


Prevalence of Tobacco intake in Jammu and Kashmir particularly in district of Kupwara and Shopian where almost more than half of adult population consumes tobacco in some form or other presents a matter of serious concern not only for health professionals and Government but also for the immediate society and environment associated with it. Although the Government is trying its best to control the usage of tobacco in any which way, its decline lies in our hands and we as responsible citizens of the country should stop smoking and encourage and motivate others who do the same so that we can live in clean and healthy environment which is not only safe for us but holds a true promise for coming generations too.

Acknowledgement

None.

Financial support and sponsorship

Not applicable.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet 2017;390:1345-422.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Global Adult Tobacco Survey—Fact Sheet India, 2016–17. New Delhi: Government of India; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
National Health Family Survey (2019–2020). Available from: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-5_JK.shtml. [Last accessed on 2021 May 24].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Agrawal S, Karan A, Selvaraj S, Bhan N, Subramanian SV, Millett C. Socio-economic patterning of tobacco use in indian states. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013;17:1110-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Subramanian SV, Nandy S, Kelly M, Gordon D, Davey Smith G. Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: Cross sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998-9 national family health survey. BMJ 2004;328:801-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Key Messages:
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed885    
    Printed162    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded110    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]